Category Archives: Health

How DO surgeons perform a sex change? Eye-watering animation reveals every stage of how a man becomes a woman

This fascinating video reveals exactly how surgeons perform a male to female sex change.The animation, uploaded by the European Society of Urology, shows how a penis and testicles are removedand a vagina is formed.The new genitalia even has a clitoris capable of orgasm.It begins by making clear men who seek to become women must meet certain criteria.The patient must have already had two psychological approvals – where experts deem they should have thesurgery – before an assessment  by surgeons to ensure they are fit and well.They must also have lived as a woman for at least 18 months, had hormone therapy for 12 months, and changed their first name legally by deed poll.The video shows how the patient is first put in a position in which they are lying on the operating table, theirknees bent and their feet flat and turned outwards.A catheter is placed in their urethra to drain urine and collect the fluid.Surgeons make a cut in the scrotum, the flap of skin is pulled back, and both testicles are removed.Next, the dorsal nerve bundle (a nerve that gives the penis feeling) the glans (the head of the penis) and the urethra (the pipe through which urine and semen flows) are separated from the corpus cavernosum, the main ‘shaft’ of the penis.


Now, the patient’s legs are raised and the penis is further dissected – with the corpora cavernosa – the main fleshy bits of the penis cut away – right up to the the pubic bone as possible.With this cut away only the urethra, the central pipe, is left.This is cut shorter, and is later put into a different place in the vagina, comparable to where a naturally-bornwoman would have her urethra, the outlet from which urine will flow.The excess skin of the penis and foreskin is used to make a long flaccid tube of skin, which is inverted to become vaginal canal, known as a ‘neo-meatus’.The rest of the urethra is stitched into it to make the canal slightly wider in circumference, so the woman will be able to have sex.Next, incisions are made in the genitals where women normally have a clitoris and a urethra.


A clitoris is formed through cutting the glans, the head of the penis, to a smaller size. It is then attached to the genitals with fine stitches.Surgeons then cut further down what was the scrotum, towards the anus, and cut away the anus’ main tendon, the centrum tendineum.The space between the rectum and the base of the prostate is roughly developed to make space for the new vagina, and the area is stitched up.For the outer female genitals, each half of the skin of the scrotum is tailored to become the labia minora and majora – the inner and outer ‘lips’ of the vagina’.The incisions are strategically placed to look like natural skin closes in the vaginal lips.Research has shown that after surgery many patients are able to enjoy a satisfying sex life.In one study, carried out on 24 patients at the University of Tuebingen, Germany, it was reported that all patients were able to have an orgasm.
Marc Pacifico, consultant plastic surgeon and member of the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS), said the psychological aspects of the operation are ‘hugely important’.He told MailOnline: ‘This is an irreversible operation so the decision to go through with it has to be as concrete from the patient and from their doctors.’There are thorough psychiatric pathways that all the patients have to go down prior to even entering the surgical route.’The operation is not straightforward. ‘There are risks, as with any operation, but the genitals are not a cleanarea – so there is there is a risk of infection and delayed healing.’You can get stenosis, tightening of the vagina. Many people undergoing the surgery will need dilaters to open it up.’There’s a risk of bleeding, or the skin – such as the new clitoris – dying.’He added that sex change surgery is only one part of the gender reassignment process.He said: ‘The genitals are only one part of it; lots of people have surgery to feminise their nose and their voice box



Officials in four Latin American and Caribbean nations have warned women to avoid pregnancy amid concerns over an illness causing severe birth defects.
That was a BBC  headline pertaining to this new threat to they ever precious newborn.It is said to have arrived they UK and has prompted Brazil to warn pregnant women to sit out this year’s Olympics over fears about its deleterious effects.But what is Zika virus and why is 2016 suddenly becoming the year of this deadly virus?According to wikipedia Zika virus ( ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family and the Flavivirus genus, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In humans, it causes a mild illness known as Zika fever , Zika, or Zika disease, which since the 1950s has been known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia. In 2014, the virus spread eastward across the Pacific Ocean to French Polynesia , then to Easter Island and in 2015 to Central America the Caribbean, and South America as the ongoing Zika virus in the Americas (2015 – present) and is now considered pandemic.The illness is like a mild form of dengue fever, is treated by rest,and cannot be prevented by drugs or vaccines.Zika virus is transmitted by daytime-active mosquitoes and has been isolated from a number of species in the genus Aedes , such as A. aegypti , and arboreal mosquitoes such as A. africanus, A. apicoargenteus , A. furcifer , A. hensilli, A. luteocephalus , and A. vitattus. Studies show that the extrinsic incubation period in mosquitoes is about 10 days.The vertebrate hosts of the virus are primarily monkeys and humans.Common symptoms of infection with the virus include mild headaches, maculopapular rash, fever, malaise, pink eye , and joint pains. The first well-documented case of Zika virus was described in 1964, began with a mild headache, and progressed to a maculopapular rash, fever, and back pain. Within two days, the rash started fading, and within three days, the fever resolved and only the rash remained.
Data suggest that newborns of mothers who had Zika virus infection during the first trimester of pregnancy are at an increased risk for microcephaly.Since December 2015, it has been suspected (but not proven) that a transplacental infection of the fetus may lead to microcephaly and brain damage.So thats were we are today.They BBC further reports that Brazil said the number of babies born with suspected microcephaly – or abnormally small heads – had reached nearly 4,000 since October.
Meanwhile, US health authorities have warned pregnant women to avoid travelling to more than 20 countries in the Americas and beyond, where Zika cases have been registered.Its a challenge for women because it sounds absurd to tell women to delay parturition over a virus that few people even know about.
In Colombia, more than 13,500 cases have been reported.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued initial travel warnings to pregnant women last week, adding eight more places to the list on Friday. The warnings now extend to:
Central and South America: Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela
Caribbean: Barbados, Saint Martin, Haiti, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe
Oceania : Samoa
Africa: Cape Verde

Lassa fever: Death toll hits 40


The Federal Government yesterday confirmed the death of 40 Nigerians in a Lassa fever outbreak in 10 states of the country.
Eighty-six people were infected in Bauchi, Nasarawa, Niger, Taraba, Kano, Rivers, Edo, Plateau, Gombe and Oyo ,according to Health Minister Isaac Adewole.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines Lassa fever as an acute haemorrhagic illness which belongs to the arenarvirus family of viruses, which also includes the Ebola-like Marburg virus.




She underwent a gastric by pass which has become a life saving procedure for thousands of obese individuals.See photos below;



Teenager’s horror as doctors find a THREE STONE parasite twin in his stomach… with hair and teeth

This happens rarely.A “parasitic twin”growing inside of you.For this indian teenager named Narenda the stomach pains became chronic with no relieving factor despite frequent doctor visitations.


He received the shock of his life when doctors told him that a malformed foetus of his twin that weighed 2.5kg and contained bones,hair and teeth was found inside him.The parasite had been feeding off Narendra, 18, after forming an umbilical cord-like structure that leached its twin’s blood supply.He was finally diagnosed with ‘foetus in fetu,’ a rare condition with only 200 cases ever reported worldwide.


Foetus in fetu is an incredibly rare condition that affects only one in five million live births.It is a condition where the malformed foetus is found in the body of its twin.The foetus is found in the abdomen in 80 per cent of cases, although there have been reports of it occurring in the skull.There are only 200 reports of it ever happening.While the diagnosis is gaining popularity, the World Health Organisation has classified ‘foetus in fetu’ as avariant of mature teratoma, a type of cancer where the tumour is well-developed.

The science of sex: Experts reveal why love hurts, how sex helps us live longer – and why it’s so important tokiss

Whether you call it sex, intercourse or making love, we all know what happens when we slip between the sheets.But how does the act of coitus change our brains and bodies? And why does it hurt so much when we are rejected after a fling?The act of sex sets off a cascade of hormones, which trigger pleasure, happiness, and bonding, scientists reveal.A plethora of studies now shows intercourse is good for our health, from protecting against heart disease and osteoporosis, to staving off dementia and improving mood.Below, they describe exactly how sex can help us live longer, and why sexual rejection breaks our hearts..


A key hormone released during sex is oxytocin, also known as the ‘cuddle hormone’. This lowers our defences and makes us trust people more, says Dr Arun Ghosh, a GP specialising in sexual health at the Spire Liverpool Hospital.It’s also the key to bonding, as it increases levels of empathy. Women produce more of this hormone, although it’s not clear why, and this means they are more likely to let their guard down and fall in love with a man after sex.However, the problem is that the body can’t distinguish whether the person we’re with is a casual fling or marriage material — oxytocin is released either way. So while it might help you bond with the love of your life, it’s also the reason you may feel so miserable when a short-term relationship ends.Men, on the other hand, instead of getting a surge of bonding hormone receive a surge of simple pleasure.‘The problem is that when a man has an orgasm, the main hormone released is dopamine — the pleasure hormone. And this surge can be addictive,’ says Dr Ghosh.That’s why so many more men tend to suffer from sex addiction.

Many of us are all too aware that our brain cells decline with age. In fact, it’s said we lose 7,000 brain cells a day by the time we’re 35, which makes rather depressing reading.The good news, however, is that having regular sex may help us grow new brain cells, according to scientists from Princeton University in the United States.And the more sex you have, the more cells you can grow, it seems. Animal studies, published in the journal PLoS ONE, suggest that sex stimulates the growth of brain cells in the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for memory and learning.Factors such as stress and depression have been shown to shrink the hippocampus, yet exercise and sex counteract this effect.Furthermore, sex could actually be protecting our brain cells against decline.‘There is some evidence that older people who are sexually active are less likely to have dementia and this could be for a variety of complex reasons,’ says Dr Ghosh.
Sex causes increased blood flow to the brain, which improves oxygen levels.‘MRI scans have shown that during orgasm the neurons in the brain are more active and use more oxygen,’ explains Barry Komisaruk, professor of psychology at Rutgers University and a leading authority on sex andneuroscience.‘It appears that the more active the neurons, the more oxygen they withdraw from the blood — so more oxygenated blood is supplied to the region, delivering a fresh supply of nutrients.’But as well as boosting brain cells, sex could also sharpen a woman’s mind, says Dr Ghosh. That’s due to asurge in sex hormones, particularly testosterone, which can help improve concentration and reaction times.


The lips are packed with nerve endings — 100 times more than the fingertips.As a result, kissing kick-starts multiple mechanisms in the brain, releasing chemicals that lower stress and boost mood, says Dr Ghosh.‘You’ll have much better sex if you kiss before intercourse,’ says Dr Ghosh.+8Kissing kick-starts multiple mechanisms in the brain, releasing chemicals that lower stress and boost mood- and improving sex, Dr Ghosh saidIt increases levels of the pleasure hormones and will make you a lot more receptive to what happens later.‘That’s why loving sex can be more satisfying than a quickie — and that endorphin hit from dopamine is especially important for women.

Orgasm (rather than sex) can block pain signals, says Professor Komisaruk.Research using laboratory animals and humans has found that orgasm can inhibit the release of pain transmitters from the spinal cord so they can’t reach the neurons in the brain that respond to pain.In fact, he says, it can raise the pain threshold so much that the equivalent effect in morphine is three timesthe usual pain-relieving dose.

A lot of sexual health research focuses on what’s happening physically.But experts say that for many people — especially women — the mind plays a key role in achieving orgasm.While male brains tend to focus on the physical stimulation involved in sexual contact, the key to female arousal seems to be deep relaxation and a lack of anxiety.The scans show that, during sex, the parts of the female brain responsible for processing fear, anxiety and emotion start to relax more and more, reaching a peak at orgasm, when the female brain’s anxiety and emotion are effectively closed down.

There is a known circuit in the brain that’s involved in feeling happy,’ explains Paul Thompson, professor ofneurology at the University of California, Los Angeles, and an expert in brain imaging.‘This is called the limbic region, which is deep in the brain, and it’s more active when we’re rewarded. The same system is activated by sex, drugs, gambling — basically anything we enjoy.‘There’s more blood flow to the head, more neurons firing, more brain activity.‘Much of this deep brain circuit runs on the hormone dopamine. Anything pleasurable tends to cause these brain cells to exude more of it and this makes them fire faster.’‘Without doubt, sex has not only physical but psychological and social benefits, too,’ says Dr Ghosh.
The endorphins released during sex can really help treat depression and clear the mind.‘One is serotonin, also called the happy hormone, which creates a sense of bliss. People often say that sex is the last thing they feel like doing when they’re depressed, but do try it if you can.‘And don’t worry if you get emotional afterwards — it’s very common to end up crying after sex. This is caused by a combination of endorphins being released and heightened emotions.

If you’re struggling to nod off, it’s better to have sex than take a sleeping pill, says Dr Ghosh.‘In fact, it’s more beneficial to have sex in the evening rather than the morning because the body wants to be relaxed afterwards, not get up and go to work.‘By having sex at the end of the day you’ll reap more of the stress-relieving benefits. For a man, a powerful orgasm is the equivalent of having on average a 2-3mg shot of diazepam (or Valium).‘That’s why so many men nod off afterwards — there really is a biological reason for this.’

Researchers at Nottingham University have found that men who enjoy a regular sex life in their 50s are at lower risk of developing prostate cancer. ‘Clearing the prostate out regularly is the reason behind this,’ says Dr Ghosh.‘The link was suggested after research showed that monks appear to have a higher chance of developing prostate cancer.’


Sex relaxes the muscles and alleviates neck and shoulder tension, says Dr Arun Ghosh, a GP specialising insexual health at the Spire Liverpool Hospital. And surprisingly, it might also tell you whether you need glasses.‘I’ve had patients complain of poor vision after sex. What’s happened is that, like all the other muscles in the body, their eye muscles have relaxed and are performing at their true ability, rather than straining and squinting as they would normally.’So if your sight goes blurry after sex, it’s worth going for an eye test.

Sex can have a protective effect on the heart. A study at Queen’s University in Belfast found that having sexthree times a week could halve the risk of heart attack or stroke.Another study in Israel found that women who had two orgasms a week were up to 30 per cent less likely tohave heart disease than those who didn’t enjoy sex or didn’t orgasm.Dr Lisa Turner, a sex and relationship therapist, says: ‘One theory is that  these women may have felt depressed, which has been linked with an increased risk of a heart attack.’The endorphins released during sex also neutralise the stress hormones in the body, which are linked to heart disease.’

Providing that a woman is fairly active during sex, then it’s a good workout for her pelvic floor muscles, says Dr Gillian Vanhegan, a spokesman for the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.The muscles that stem the flow of urine, reducing leakage and incontinence, all benefit and this reduces therisk of stress incontinence and prolapse later in life, both of which are very common.‘After having children many women don’t have the time to do dedicated pelvic floor exercises, so sex provides a natural workout.’

Here’s a simple way to get your man to kick his smoking habit — remind him that it causes the penis to shrink and can cause impotence.Erections are all about good blood flow, and lighting up worsens blood flow to the spongy tissues in the penis, says Raj Persad, consultant urological surgeon at Bristol Royal Infirmary.‘As a result, they become starved of oxygen and the delicate cells die away. They then become fibrotic — forming scar tissue — which is less elastic and less able to expand during an erection than regular healthy tissue.’Smoking is also a known cause of erectile dysfunction as it causes hardening of the arteries and hampers good blood flow.A study of more 7,000 Chinese men, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, found that the more cigarettes smoked a day, the higher the risk of impotence.

‘Just like smoking or diabetes, a lack of regular blood flow to the penis will over time cause some of the tissues to die,’ says Mr Persad.Indeed, Finnish research has confirmed that men who had sex less than once a week at the start of the study were twice as likely to develop erectile dysfunction as those who had it at least once a week.In the study of 1,000 men aged between 55 and 75, those who had sex three or more times a week lowered their risk fourfold.There’s no reason not to  enjoy a full sex life in old age, adds Dr Jackson.‘We have some patients in their 80s taking Viagra-type drugs and studies have shown that a regular sex lifecan prolong life — it’s basically another form of exercise.‘There seems to be a myth that you’re past it once you hit 65, but that’s rubbish.’